Automobiles, also known as motor cars or autocars, are self-propelled vehicles designed for passenger transportation. They have four wheels and an internal combustion engine that burns a volatile fuel, most often gasoline.

The automobile is a highly technical system whose design is influenced by several factors including air pollution, safety legislation, competition between manufacturers and the need for efficient production and distribution of components. There are thousands of component parts that are designed to perform specific functions in the vehicle.

Among the most important are steering and suspension, which control the behavior of the vehicle during driving. These systems are subject to high loads and must be durable, simple and resistant to severe overloads.

Drivelines and gearboxes are essential in enabling the transmission of torque between the engine and road wheels. Different gear ratios are used to overcome the resistance faced by the automobile under different conditions.

Differential and Transfercase

The differential is a function of the transmission system that helps the vehicle to go on curved paths or in steep turns. It works by reducing the speed of the inner wheels and enhancing the speed of outer wheels.

Powertrain and Suspension

The car is a complex technical system consisting of hundreds of individual parts that are designed to perform specific functions in different areas. These include a fuel tank, battery, transmission, front and rear suspension, engine, exhaust and brakes. These systems are designed to meet the needs of various driving styles, including passenger comfort, engine performance, optimized high-speed handling and vehicle stability.